Generator Niva 2121, 21213, 21214: which one is installed, replacement

How to check the operation of the generator

The battery in a car is an important element of the system, which is responsible for providing the car’s on-board network with electricity.
The generator is used to charge the battery while it is active. Unstable operation of a device generating electricity causes a voltage drop in the network and failure to restore the capacity of the power source. Normal generator performance means timely and complete replenishment of the battery charge level, which decreases under load. Checking the battery charge level from the generator is simple and can be done by the car owner himself.

Diagnostics of an automotive energy-generating device includes a visual inspection of the unit, its elements and related parts, as well as voltage and current measurements. At least twice a year, you should check the tension of the drive belt, excessive weakening of which leads to a decrease in the performance of the generator, and sometimes can lead to breakdown of the device.

Diagnostics of indicators such as voltage, current, resistance are also necessary twice a year. To carry it out, you will need special devices - a voltmeter, multimeter or load fork.

It is traditionally believed that 13.5-14.5V should be supplied by the generator to the battery and this is absolutely enough to replenish the battery costs.

It is worth considering that using a battery with a higher power in a car than the manufacturer recommends also requires the installation of a more productive generating device.

It is necessary to take into account the load that the generator must withstand - it is calculated based on the maximum indicators of all electrical appliances and car systems.

Do not forget that the charging current from the energy-generating device will allow you to start the car in the cold season. In order to avoid problems with starting the car, we recommend purchasing generating equipment, the charge current of which will be approximately 10% of the capacity of the power source.

That is, a battery of 100 A/h requires a generator that can produce 10A. Please note that for many cars, 100 amp equipment will operate at its maximum capacity, because the power consumption of the automotive system is in the region of 80 amps. Therefore, the choice of a source generating energy must take into account both the battery capacity and network consumption.

The potential difference can be diagnosed in two ways - directly at the generating equipment and through the battery. The generator is directly connected to the power source with a thick wire, therefore, to check the level of potential difference, you can measure the voltage at the power source. To do this, you will need special devices - a voltmeter, multimeter or load plug.

The wires of the first measuring instruments are connected to the battery in any sequence. The plug must be connected to the battery terminals with strict observance of polarity. It is generally accepted that the normal voltage in the network should not be lower than 12 volts. At idle speed without turning on all the electrical appliances of the car, this indicator should be at the level of 13.5-14V. A drop in voltage values ​​to 13.3-13.8 volts is considered acceptable.

At the same time, using conventional testing equipment, you can check the resistance of the generator elements - rotor, stator and diode bridge. Diagnostics of rotary equipment is carried out by its winding. It is necessary to connect the probes of the device with slip rings. If the multimeter gives readings from 2, 3 to 5.1 ohms, then this element is working. The current consumption of the winding should be within 3-4.5 amperes.

Its normal resistance is 0.2 Ohm. The diode bridge is checked by the presence or absence of resistance, the indicators do not matter. The only thing worth considering is that there should not be a zero dimension. Measurements are carried out in pairs - positive output and all plates on this side or minus and all elements.

We remind you that for normal charging of a car battery, the voltage supplied by the generator must be from 13.5 to 14 volts.

The current strength required by the electrical system of each car is individual and depends on the number of electricity consumers and their values. And also the charge current must be sufficient to charge the power source.

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It is worth noting that ampere readings appear only when there is a load in the vehicle’s electrical system and, accordingly, the battery is discharged. After starting the car engine, the charging current is about 6-10 amperes and drops over time, because the battery is charging, taking on the main energy consumption. If you turn on additional equipment - headlights, radio or heated mirrors, you can see an increase in the charging current values.

When purchasing a generator, pay attention to its technical characteristics, which the manufacturer indicates on the case - that’s where you will find information about the maximum current that will flow to the battery.

In the table below you can see the approximate current values ​​​​that the generator shows at different loads.

Table 1. How many amperes the generator produces under load.

A small potential difference in the system is not always associated with a breakdown of the generator or a bad battery. If the diagnosis of these elements does not reveal any problems, then you should pay attention to the following:

  • condition of the battery terminals - connection density and oxidation;
  • electrical wiring problems - oxidation, violation of its integrity;
  • output contacts to electrical appliances;
  • correctly selected energy consumers.

Each contact must be tightly adjacent and intact, that is, there must be no formations (for example, sulfation) that will disrupt the flow of current. Incorrect connection of contacts leads to accelerated battery discharge even when the car is not running.

To improve the connection of the elements of the car's electrical system, it is necessary to clean all contacts and restore the integrity of the wires by replacing them or connecting them and wrapping them with insulating tape.

In conclusion, I would like to repeat that stable operation of the car requires constant monitoring of all elements, and the generator should attract special attention. The battery is charged from it and provides electricity to the entire car system. Pay attention to all elements: generator brushes, slip rings, voltage regulator, equipment winding.

The most correct measurements should be carried out when the battery is fully charged and in various modes. Remember that the manufacturer links the characteristics of the generator to the number of engine revolutions - they help produce a certain current.

Do you have experience diagnosing an alternator and solving problems in a vehicle's electrical system? Please share your experience and opinion with our readers in the comments. If you have questions about the topics covered, we will be happy to answer them.

What is a generator

A generator is an alternating current device that produces electromagnetic excitation during operation. The generator design has a built-in rectifier unit, equipped with diodes made of silicon, as well as an electronic voltage regulator.

Thus, the unit creates electrical energy from mechanical energy and energizes the car’s battery, and also provides energy to its devices and systems. The connection diagram for the generator on Niva-2121, 21213, 21214 is shown in the figure.

D) Diodes or rectifier unit are faulty

To assess the condition of the mentioned components (negative, positive and additional diodes), arm yourself with a low-power lamp and battery. Diodes are indicated by numbers in the diagram: 1. Positive

Operation is determined by connecting “” to the 30 terminal of the generator (for positive), the bolts of the rectifier block (for negative) or to 61 (for additional), and “-” to its body (for negative) or to any of the bolts of the rectifier block (for positive and additional). The glow of the lamp indicates that the diodes have been shorted, which leads to the conclusion that the diode bridge will have to be replaced. Be attentive to the indications on the instrument panel. Often the icon lights up half-heartedly and is not noticeable in bright light.

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Characteristics of the standard generator

The main characteristics of the generator installed by the manufacturer in Niva 21214, 21213, 2121 will be considered using the example of generator type 9412.3701:

  • current – ​​80A;
  • voltage – 13.2 V,
  • rotation is right.

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The cost of standard models of electric generators is 5-7 thousand rubles. If the unit breaks down, it is possible to replace its components or completely replace it with the original or analogues. The prices of the most common ones are presented in the table.

Analoguevendor codeCost, in rubles
Generator VAZ-2104-21073,212149412.3701-035900
Generator VAZ-2104-21073,21214372.3701-03/053800
Generator VAZ 2121-21213,212149412.37015450

The table shows that in the process of replacing a generator on a Niva, you can give preference to a cheaper universal analogue.

Signs of a generator malfunction

During the operation of any car, unpleasant situations often arise in the form of failure of one or another element. Niva is no exception, and most often the generator suffers.

If the generator seems to be faulty, it is recommended to check its functionality using a multimeter. To do this, you will need to start the engine and check the voltage at the battery terminals. The standard value that a multimeter should read is 13.6 V.

If the readings during measurement are higher, it means that a break or short circuit in the windings has occurred in the structure. The same can be said about the case when the voltage is below the specified number. This procedure is carried out regardless of the engine: injector or carburetor.

Also, if the breakdown is caused by another reason, you can replace the generator itself. Usually, for replacement, they turn to special service stations, but if necessary, the work can be done with your own hands.

In modern cars, breakdowns of the electrical system are one of the most common. A large number of electronics requires particularly careful monitoring of the operation and condition of the generator and battery, because their failure can immobilize the car. The most common signs of a generator malfunction are:

  • battery indicator light on the instrument panel;
  • unstable operation of the battery (its boiling over or undercharging);
  • different intensity of headlights;
  • extraneous sounds from the generator.

If you notice incorrect operation of the car, then perhaps the battery charging current from the generator is insufficient.

All malfunctions of electrical equipment, which includes the vehicle’s energy-generating device, are mechanical (deformation or breakage of fasteners, housing, malfunction of bearings, pressure springs, drive belt, etc.) or electrical (winding breaks, diode bridge malfunctions, burnout or wear of brushes , short circuits between turns, breakdowns, etc.).

Don’t write off a non-working generator: find out if there are repair kits and spare parts. Replace them if possible. If you cannot carry out repair work yourself, then take the generator to a workshop. Many craftsmen will be able to restore the unit at no extra cost and in the shortest possible time.

However, some breakdowns require the purchase of a new device that generates electricity. For example, a failing bearing that is soldered into the generator housing cannot be restored or replaced in most cases.

Remember that failure of this unit can be caused not only by wear and corrosion, but also by poor quality of elements and components; excessive load; external influence of salts, liquids, temperatures.

Dismantling and connecting the generator on Niva 2121: step-by-step instructions

The generator is the source of electrical energy for the vehicle. The article discusses the 21214 generator, its design features, possible problems and troubleshooting methods, and provides step-by-step instructions on how to remove and connect the device.

On Niva 21214 cars there is a generator of type 9412.3701, on VAZ 21213 - type 371.3701, on Niva Chevrolet there is a generator 2123.

All of them are alternating current electric machines with electromagnetic excitation, having a built-in rectifier unit with silicon diodes and an electronic voltage regulator.

The maximum current generated by the generator unit type 9412.3701 is 80 A, voltage - 13.2 - 14.7 V, rotation - right.

Design of unit 21214

The unit covers are attached to the stator using 4 bolts. The covers have bearings installed. They rotate the rotor shaft. In the front bearing, the inner race is clamped with a nut along with a thrust ring and washer. The 2nd bearing is also pressed into the back cover.

The stator has a 3-phase winding, one of the ends of which is connected to a rectifier unit consisting of 6 diodes. Of these, 3 diodes are negative, 3 are positive. According to the polarity, they are pressed into the plates. The entire structure consists of a rectifier unit, which is located on the back cover of the generator unit covered with a protective casing.

The design of the unit also includes contact rings and brushes. On the back side of the back cover there is a brush holder, which is structurally connected to the voltage regulator. The rectifier contains a capacitor that protects the electrical network from power surges.

The “B” terminal of the generator set must be connected to the positive terminal of the battery, and the negative terminal of the battery to the vehicle ground. If the connection is incorrect, this will lead to breakdown of the diodes.

Generator Niva 21214

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Basic malfunctions and ways to eliminate them

Checking the health of the unit is done using a multimeter. After the engine is started, the voltage at the battery terminals should be 13.6 V. If the value is higher or lower, this indicates a break or short circuit of the windings, oxidation of the slip rings, a malfunction in the brush assembly, or voltage regulator.

The generator unit may not work well due to weak belt tension or its breakage. In this case, you need to adjust the tension or replace the belt. Faulty voltage regulator, needs to be replaced.

If a breakdown, short circuit, or damage to the rotor windings is detected, it should be replaced. If there is a break or short circuit in the stator windings, it requires replacement. If the diodes are damaged, the rectifier unit is replaced.

Nuances of moving a generator

The disadvantage of domestic Niva SUVs is the location of the generator unit - at the bottom of the engine compartment. It constantly gets contaminated when driving off-road, and coolant constantly drips. The problem is solved by moving the generator upstairs (the author of the video is SARTANETS).

To transfer, you will need a set of keys, a bracket, mounting bolts, and a V-belt. You can make a generator transfer bracket with your own hands according to the drawing below.

Drawing of a homemade bracket

Sequence of actions during transfer:

  1. We dismantle the propeller, pump and remove the belt.
  2. By unscrewing the standard bracket, you can remove the generator.
  3. We cut off the bead around the side of the cylinder head and on the cylinder block.
  4. Then you should unscrew the two bolts and two studs.
  5. Next, the assembly is installed on a new bracket and final assembly is performed.

1. Schematic illustration of unscrewing the fastening material

2. Car with the belt removed

3. Unit in a new location

Thus, moving the generator unit upstairs is not difficult.

Generator replacement

To repair or replace the generator, the car owner will have to remove the unit completely from the car or turn to professionals for work. If you still want to carry out the replacement yourself, then first you will need to prepare all the necessary tools:

  • hammer;
  • extension;
  • keys to "10" and "19".

The procedure consists of the following sequence of actions:

  • First, you will need to park the car in a place designated for inspection and repair. The car will also need to be secured using special wheel chocks. Finally, in order for the work to be carried out safely, you should disconnect the battery by disconnecting the terminals from it.
  • After this, you need to remove the engine protection. It is attached to several bolts, and they must be unscrewed to get to the lowest bolt of the generator.
  • After this, you will need to knock out the mounting bolt using a hammer. It is recommended to knock carefully so as not to damage the thread and to prevent the bolt from coming out in the opposite direction. A hammer is necessary, since a wrench or any other tool simply cannot handle a bolt.
  • Next, you need to remove the bolt, swinging the generator from side to side. It is necessary to bolt in any case, as this makes it easier to remove the rod.
  • The fourth step involves disconnecting the wiring. To do this, the power wires connected to the housing are disconnected from the unit. In this case, you can first disconnect the plug from the wires.
  • Wires are also attached to the generator, tightened with a nut or bracket. In this case, the nuts must be unscrewed with a wrench, and then the loose wires must be pulled out.
  • Finally, after disconnecting the wires, you can begin to unscrew the upper fastening element with the belt tensioner. For this you will also need a wrench, as well as a small extension cord.
  • Disconnecting the fastener will allow you to remove the belt and alternator. Then you can start cleaning the vacated space with a brush and installing a new unit.

The structure is assembled in the reverse order; the entire procedure will take about two hours if you have all the necessary tools.

Additionally, it is worth noting that when everything is assembled, you will need to adjust the position of the generator using the tensioner. To do this, you need to unscrew the tensioner nut and tighten or loosen the belt, while observing the battery charge.

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If the indicator returns to normal, then the selected tension is sufficient. There is no need to tighten the structure, as the generator bearing may fail. If the tension is insufficient, the generator will work intermittently, and this can also lead to breakdown.

A) Belt break.

Carefully examine the presence of a belt on the water pump and generator pulleys. To return it to its destination, you will need socket wrenches 17 or 13, depending on the year of manufacture of the car, as well as a strong flat-head screwdriver.

Disconnect the HF position sensor (for example, at 21213,21214).

Loosen the nuts securing the tension bar and slide it to the side towards the cylinder block.

Put a belt on your professionalism landing place.

After installation is complete, adjust the tension, controlling the deflection when pressing with a huge finger on the clearance of the belt between the generator and pump pulleys - 10-15 mm, pump and crankshaft - 12-17 mm. Failure to comply with this requirement may result in the belt slipping with subsequent damage and rupture.


When replacing a generator with a Niva 21213, 2121, 21214, a number of subtleties arise, and one of them is the location of the generator unit. It is located at the bottom of the engine compartment.

Actually, this is why problems arise with the operation of the structure: while driving, various contaminants get on the generator, and coolant drips. If you don’t want to constantly change the generator unit, it is recommended to move it upstairs.

To ensure that no problems arise during the operation of the car, it is important to monitor the condition of the car. First of all, it is recommended to regularly inspect the generator.

So, when the “battery” light blinks on the dashboard, if suspicious noises or creaking sounds occur, you should be wary and think that the generator is not working correctly.

Timely inspection will help to avoid unpleasant situations in the form of breakdowns of the constituent elements of the generator, and as a result, failure of entire electrical systems.

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Battery charging lamp VAZ 21214

After replacing the alternator belt, charging stopped

, as a result, the battery died and the controller stopped working. The location where the charging relay is located near the field is determined by the age of the car. Thus, a remote relay can be found on the right fender liner of a car with a classic engine compartment layout; more modern modifications of generators are equipped with a launch vehicle combined with a brush assembly.

The element is not repaired, but replaced completely. To assess the condition, you will need power supplies of 12-14 V, followed by replacement with 16-22 V, and also an incandescent lamp of 1-3 W. According to the diagram drawing, apply current to the voltage regulator in series. If the first test is characterized by the operation of the lamp, and the second - by the absence of glow, then the LV is working.

If there is a break, the lamp will not light up at all; if there is a breakdown, it will glow constantly. In addition, weak charging, as well as its absolute absence, is often explained by abrasion of the brushes (residual height less than 5 mm) and slip rings of the generator. If the first part is changed along with the brush holder, then the second is restored by grinding, grooving or removing the remains of the old rings and pressing in new ones. It is recommended to supplement the disassembly of the unit with a total cleaning.

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